A normal approach and landing involves the use of procedures for what is considered a normal situation; that is, when engine power is available, the wind is light or the final approach is made directly into the wind, the final approach path has no obstacles, and the landing surface is firm and of ample length to gradually bring the airplane to a stop. The selected landing point should be beyond the runway's approach threshold but within the first one-third portion of the runway.
The factors involved and the procedures described for the normal approach and landing also have applications to the other-than-normal approaches and landings which are discussed later in this chapter. This being the case, the principles of normal operations are explained first and must be understood before proceeding to the more complex operations. So that the pilot may better understand the factors that will influence judgment and procedures, that last part of the approach pattern and the actual landing will be divided into five phases: the base leg, the final approach, the roundout, the touchdown, and the after-landing roll.
It must be remembered that the manufacturer's recommended procedures, including airplane configuration and airspeeds, and other information relevant to approaches and landings in a specific make and model airplane are contained in the FAA-approved Airplane Flight Manual and/or Pilot's Operating Handbook (AFM/POH) for that airplane. If any of the information in this chapter differs from the airplane manufacturer's recommendations as contained in the AFM/POH, the airplane manufacturer's recommendations take precedence.