Friday, April 24, 2009

Configuration:Intentional Slips

In cleaning up the airplane during the go-around, the pilot should be concerned first with flaps and secondly with the landing gear (if retractable). When the decision is made to perform a go-around, takeoff power should be applied immediately and the pitch attitude changed so as to slow or stop the descent. After the descent has been stopped, the landing flaps may be partially retracted or placed in the takeoff position as recommended by the manufacturer.

Go-around procedure.Caution must be used, however, in retracting the flaps. Depending on the airplane's altitude and airspeed, it may be wise to retract the flaps intermittently in small increments to allow time for the airplane to accelerate progressively as they are being raised. A sudden and complete retraction of the flaps could cause a loss of lift resulting in the airplane settling into the ground.

Unless otherwise specified in the AFM/POH, it is generally recommended that the flaps be retracted (at least partially) before retracting the landing gear—for two reasons. First, on most airplanes full flaps produce more drag than the landing gear; and second, in case the airplane should inadvertently touch down as the go-around is initiated, it is most desirable to have the landing gear in the down-and-locked position. After a positive rate of climb is established, the landing gear can be retracted.

When takeoff power is applied, it will usually be necessary to hold considerable pressure on the controls to maintain straight flight and a safe climb attitude. Since the airplane has been trimmed for the approach (a low
power and low airspeed condition), application of maximum allowable power will require considerable control pressure to maintain a climb pitch attitude. The addition of power will tend to raise the airplane's nose suddenly and veer to the left. Forward elevator pressure must be anticipated and applied to hold the nose in a safe climb attitude. Right rudder pressure must be increased to counteract torque and P-factor, and to keep the nose straight. The airplane must be held in the proper flight attitude regardless of the amount of control pressure that is required. Trim should be used to relieve adverse control pressures and assist the pilot in maintaining a proper pitch attitude. On airplanes that produce high control pressures when using maximum power on go-arounds, pilots should use caution when reaching for the flap handle. Airplane control may become critical during this high workload phase.

The landing gear should be retracted only after the initial or rough trim has been accomplished and when it is certain the airplane will remain airborne. During the initial part of an extremely low go-around, the airplane may settle onto the runway and bounce. This situation is not particularly dangerous if the airplane is kept straight and a constant, safe pitch attitude is maintained. The airplane will be approaching safe flying speed rapidly and the advanced power will cushion any secondary touchdown.

If the pitch attitude is increased excessively in an effort to keep the airplane from contacting the runway, it may cause the airplane to stall. This would be especially likely if no trim correction is made and the flaps remain fully extended. The pilot should not attempt to retract the landing gear until after a rough trim is accomplished and a positive rate of climb is established.

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