Thursday, April 24, 2008


HOT START—In gas turbine engines, a start which occurs with normal engine rotation, but exhaust temperature exceeds prescribed limits. This is usually caused by an excessively rich mixture in the combustor. The fuel to the engine must be terminated immediately to prevent engine damage.

HUMAN FACTORS—The study of how people interact with their environments. In the case of general aviation, it is the study of how pilot performance is influenced by such issues as the design of cockpits, the function of the organs of the body, the effects of emotions, and the interaction and communication with the other participants of the aviation community, such as other crewmembers and air traffic control personnel.

HUNG START��In gas turbine engines, a condition of normal light off but with r.p.m. remaining at some low value rather than increasing to the normal idle r.p.m. This is often the result of insufficient power to the engine from the starter. In the event of a hung start, the engine should be shut down.

HYDROPLANING—A condition that exists when landing on a surface with standing water deeper than the tread depth of the tires. When the brakes are applied, there is a possibility that the brake will lock up and the tire will ride on the surface of the water, much like a water ski. When the tires are hydroplaning, directional control and braking action are virtually impossible. An effective anti-skid system can minimize the effects of hydroplaning.

HYPEMIC HYPOXIA—A type of hypoxia that is a result of oxygen deficiency in the blood, rather than a lack of inhaled oxygen. It can be caused by a variety of factors. Hypemic means "not enough blood."

HYPERVENTILATION—Occurs when an individual is experiencing emotional stress, fright, or pain, and the breathing rate and depth increase, although the carbon dioxide level in the blood is already at a reduced level. The result is an excessive loss of carbon dioxide from the body, which can lead to unconsciousness due to the respiratory system's overriding mechanism to regain control of breathing.

HYPOXIA—Hypoxia means "reduced oxygen" or "not enough oxygen." Hypoxia can be caused by several factors including an insufficient supply of oxygen, inadequate transportation of oxygen, or the inability of the body tissues to use oxygen.

HYPOXIC HYPOXIA—This type of hypoxia is a result of insufficient oxygen available to the lungs. A decrease of oxygen molecules at sufficient pressure can lead to hypoxic hypoxia.

IFR (INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES)� Rules that govern the procedure for conducting flight in weather conditions below VFR weather minimums. The term IFR also is used to define weather conditions and the type of flight plan under which an aircraft is operating.

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