Wednesday, April 23, 2008


FROST—Ice crystal deposits formed by sublimation when temperature and dew point are below freezing.

FUEL LOAD—The expendable part of the load of the airplane. It includes only usable fuel, not fuel required to fill the lines or that which remains trapped in the tank sumps.

FUSELAGE—The section of the airplane that consists of the cabin and/or cockpit, containing seats for the occupants and the controls for the airplane.

GIMBAL RING—A type of support that allows an object, such as a gyroscope, to remain in an upright condition when its base is tilted.

GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM).A satellite-based radio positioning, navigation, and time transfer system.

GROUND ADJUSTABLE TRIM TAB—Non-movable metal trim tab on a control surface. Bent in one direction or another while on the ground to apply trim forces to the control surface.

GROUND EFFECT—The condition of slightly increased air pressure below an airplane wing or helicopter rotor system that increases the amount of lift produced. It exists within approximately one wing span or one rotor diameter from the ground. It results from a reduction in upwash, downwash, and wingtip vortices, and provides a corresponding decrease in induced drag.

GROUNDSPEED (GS)—The actual speed of the airplane over the ground. It is true airspeed adjusted for wind. Groundspeed decreases with a headwind, and increases with a tailwind.

GYROSCOPIC PRECESSION— An inherent quality of rotating bodies, which causes an applied force to be manifested 90º in the direction of rotation from the point where the force is applied.

HAZARDOUS ATTITUDES— These can lead to poor decision making and actions that involve unnecessary risk. Pilots must examine decisions carefully to ensure they have not been influenced by hazardous attitudes.

HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER ADVISORY SERVICE (HIWAS) — Continuous recorded hazardous inflight weather forecasts broadcasted to airborne pilots over selected VOR outlets defined as an HIWAS Broadcast Area.

HEADING—The direction in which the nose of the aircraft is pointing during flight.

HEADING INDICATOR — An instrument which senses airplane movement and displays heading based on a 360º azimuth, with the final zero omitted. The heading indicator, also called a directional gyro (DG), is fundamentally a mechanical instrument designed to facilitate the use of the magnetic compass. The heading indicator is not affected by the forces that make the magnetic compass difficult to interpret.

HEADWORK — Required to accomplish a conscious, rational thought process when making decisions.
Good decision making involves risk identification and assessment, information processing, and problem solving.

HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT—An aircraft with an engine of more than 200 horsepower.

HISTOTOXIC HYPOXIA — The inability of the cells to effectively use oxygen. Plenty of oxygen is being transported to the cells that need it, but they are unable to make use of it.

HORSEPOWER—The term, originated by inventor James Watt, means the amount of work a horse could do in one second. One horsepower equals 550 foot-pounds per second, or 33,000 foot-pounds per minute.

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