- Airport knowledge, and
- Cockpit procedures for maintaining orientation.
Taxi operations require constant vigilance by the entire flight crew, not just the pilot taxiing the airplane. This is especially true during flight training operations. Both the student pilot and the flight instructor need to be continually aware of the movement and location of other aircraft and ground vehicles on the airport movement area. Many flight training activities are conducted at non-tower controlled airports. The absence of an operating airport control tower creates a need for increased vigilance on the part of pilots operating at those airports.